Compared to other European breeds, the Haflinger Horse is relatively new in the equine world. Initially developed in the late 19th century in Northern Italy and Austria, the name of the Haflinger comes from the South Tyrol region. Also referred to as the Avelignese horse, it is a breed that is smaller, has a distinctive gait, and is always chestnut with its coat color.
There are 7 specific stallion lines that currently exist with the Haflinger breed. Colts are traditionally given a name that starts with the letter or letters of their line. Fillies are traditionally give a name that begins with the first letter of their dam’s name. France and Italy follow slightly different traditions, where some names begin with the letter that is designated for a specific year.
The first horse to be cloned was also a Haflinger. The effort resulted in a filly named Prometea being born.
The Origins of the Haflinger Horse
The foundation sire of the Haflinger Horse was foaled in 1874. Named 249 Folie, all Haflingers can trace their lineage back to this sire through one of 7 different bloodlines. The first cooperative for breeders was formed in 1904 to support the establishment of this breed and help it continue to grow.
Each stallion line is assigned a specific letter that is based on the name of the horse. The A Line was established by Anselmo, who was born in 1926. The other stallions that helped to establish or re-establish the Haflinger breed are Bolzano, Massimo, Bibbio, Stelvio, Student, and Willi. Student’s offspring are designated with an ST to distinguish them from Stelvio and the S Line.
Every stallion is either a great-great grandson or a fourth generation relative of Folie.
When tracing the lineage of Folie, there is an ancestry that dates to the Middle Ages within the Haflinger breed. Several different bloodlines were introduced to this region of Europe over the centuries, including Arabians, that were bred with the native ponies of the region. This has given the Haflinger an advantage over other new breeds as the genetic profile is more profound, producing fewer bottlenecks that must be addressed.
The two global wars of the 20th century were not kind to the Haflinger. Breeding programs were indiscriminate at best, with crossbreeding occurring on a frequent basis. The emphasis on breeding in the region was to create a horse that was small and strong so it could serve the military as a pack horse. Draft-like behaviors and performance were sought and this almost wiped the breed out.
Captured horses were often slaughtered in the global wars as well if they were not needed by their captors. In the post-war years, food shortages in Europe saw many additional horses being slaughtered so that there could be food. It brought the Haflinger Horse to the brink of extinction.
In 1946, a group of breeders sought to restore the Haflinger back to its previous glory. A closed stud book was created and a focus on purebred Haflingers was restored. In the next 25 years, interest in the breed would grow slowly, but steadily throughout Europe. Since the late 1940s when only a few hundred Haflingers remained, the population count in 2005 was an estimated 250,000 horses.
Two Theories Behind the History of the Haflinger Horse
There are two ideas that dominate the Haflinger breed society as to how its initial foundations were formed before Folie. The first is that horses were abandoned in the region around the 6th century after a conflict between the Byzantine Empire and the Goths of eastern Europe. These horses formed semi-feral herds in the Tyrol area and were believed to have Arabian bloodlines, which would account for the genetics seen in the modern Haflinger.
The second idea involves Louis IV, who was the Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, after serving as the King of Italy from 1327 and the King of the Romans from 1314. He sent a stallion to Louis V, who was the Duke of Bavaria, for his wedding to Princess Margarete Maultasch of Tyrol in 1342. The horses in the region would be descendants from this initial stallion.
There are also overlapping breed connections between the Haflinger and the Noriker, which may also have influenced breeding in the region before the establishment of the Haflinger as an independent breed.
Whatever the case may be, the result as produced a horse that can sustain the extremes of a mountain climate, live in difficult conditions, and require minimal supervision.
What Are the Characteristics of the Haflinger Horse?
Whether by accident or design, inbreeding occurred during the initial establishment period for this breed. This helped to create the dominant characteristics of the breed, including the chestnut coat color. Genetic studies amongst the 7 different lines have shown significant changes of characteristics in proportion and height, however, that have allowed breeders to establish protocols to prevent bottlenecks from forming.
The chestnut coat color does come in various shades. Some horses may have a light golden color to them, while others may have a dark, almost “liver” color to them. Every horse has a white or flaxen tail and mane.
Height variations occur within the breed because there have been different points of emphasis for breeding programs throughout the years. In the first 4 decades of the 20th century, shorter and compact horses were desired for agricultural or military needs. After the end of the global wars, taller horses were desired. This has created a range where a purebred Haflinger may be anywhere from 13.2-15 hands high.
Before 1945, the average height of a Haflinger was 13.3 hands high.
Horses are discouraged from breeding if they do not meet the 13.2 hands high threshold, but some exceptions do apply. If a Haflinger presents well in every other profile characteristic, it may be included with the breed registry.
A Haflinger should have pronounced withers, sloping shoulders, and a deep chest. The neck tends to be about average in length, but the croup is longer than average, and the body of the horse should be well-muscled. It should have clean legs, knees that are broad and flat, with hocks that are powerful and show clearly defined ligaments and tendons.
Temperament has been part of Haflinger breeding programs since 1946 as well. Horses should have a nature that is kind and quiet. Spirited horses are accepted into the registry, but not if they are aggressive or unkind. The temperament of the horse is checked during the inspection period for registry with the society.
The movement of a Haflinger should be athletic, relaxed, and energetic. There is some knee action within its movement, with a distinct motion that comes upward and forward simultaneously. The canter and trot tend to be a little light on the forehand, but is balanced overall.
In Northern Italy, a subtype of the Haflinger breed is also recognized. Referred to as the “Traditional Avelignese,” there were just 13 horses registered, with just one breeding stallion, for the subtype. Outside of Italy, only one type of Haflinger is officially recognized.
The N Line is the most populous for the Haflinger Horse, while the A Line has numerous stallions at stud. Many lines are prevalent only in Austria and Italy. The S Line and W Line are the rarest as both were threatened with crossbreeding early in their history. Austria is working to stabilize the S Line, while the W Line tends to be the most populous in North America.
What Is the Future of the Haflinger Horse?
Haflingers have been exported globally, but most of the breed still resides in Austria and Northern Italy. Several breeding farms around the world are helping to solidify population levels for the breed as well. Haflingers are the most populous breed in Italy. In total, there is an estimated population of more than 250,000.
The modern Haflinger is bred to work with several disciplines under the saddle, but still drive or perform drafting work. The strength of this breed, developed through the work performed in the mountains of Tyrol, makes them well-suited to pack work on rough terrain. They are still used extensively in the high Alps, where slopes of more than 40% can be found.
Some militaries still use the Haflinger for specific purposes, including the German army, which uses the horses for parade purposes and activities on rough terrain.
Although Austria forbids crossbreeding, programs in the UK and Germany have created registries where part-breds are quite popular. In Germany, a 75/25 cross between a Haflinger and an Arabia is officially known as an Arabo-Haflinger. A registry for part-breds is also maintained in the UK.
With its overall popularity, the Haflinger has established itself as a dominant equine breed. It has recovered well from the post-war era difficulties it encountered to become an integral part of human civilizations around the world. Although the tasks it is asked to complete have changed for the most part, the adaptability of this breed ensures its continued survival.