Miniature horses can be found almost everywhere in the world, though they are the most popular in Europe, North America, and South America. To qualify as a miniature horse, the breed standard of a specific association cannot be more than 34 inches when measured from the last hair of the mane.
Some associations may allow a horse to measure up to 38 inches at the last hairs of the mane, found at the withers, to qualify as a miniature horse.
Any horse that meets these standards can register with their local miniature horse association. In the United States, the American Miniature Horse Association is the primary registering body governing these horses.
They are called miniature horses because they retain the characteristics of an adult horse, but are the size of a small pony. Several different breeds qualify as a miniature horse, including American Miniatures, Appy Ponies, Dutch Miniatures, Caspians, and Falabellas.
Minis can happen in some breeds naturally, but the genetic changes that are required to maintain a horse at this size come from specific breeding programs. That is why the history of the Miniature Horse and its growing population and number of distinct breeds is such a fascinating component of equine history.
What Is the History of the Miniature Horse?
It is believed that the first miniature horses were developed in Europe during the 17th century. Around the middle of the 18th century, just before the American Revolution, miniature horses were often seen as the pets of nobles and royalty. Miners would also use these horses to help pull carts and wagons after 1842 when young children were prohibited from working in the mines.
Shetland ponies were often the first miniature horses that were seen, but any small horse that could fit into a mine shaft would be used as a pit pony. Until the era of mechanization, the demand for small horses that could work in difficult conditions was quite high, and that led to the development of many miniature horses.
In the United States, miniature horses were first introduced in 1861 when John Rarey imported 4 Shetland ponies. One of the ponies was just 24 inches tall. Mining horses from England and the Dutch were regularly imported around this time as well, retaining popularity until the turn of the century. Miniature horses were also used in US mines until the 1950s.
A separate line of miniature horses was developed in the middle of the 19th century in Argentina by a man named Patrick Newell. He and his son-in-law, Juan Falabella, included different bloodlines to strengthen the physical characteristics of their miniature horses. Small Thoroughbreds and Welsh ponies were included to establish what would eventually become the Falabella horse.
In South Africa, an entirely different approach was taken. Wynand de Wet is given credit for being the first to breed miniature horses there in 1945. He used smaller versions of draft horses to establish a miniature horse breed, interspersed with smaller Arabian horses in his programs. This led to a wide range of conformations, but also allowed the South African Miniature Horse to be officially recognized as an independent breed in 1989.
Are Dwarf Horses Classified as Miniature Horses?
Dwarfism is a genetic disorder that can affect numerous horse breeds. Although the horses affected by this condition often set world records because of their size, the traits are not genetically desirable. There are issues with physical conformation and dwarfism can cause significant health issues that affect the soundness of the individual.
Because of these issues, most horse registries that focus on miniature horses exclude individuals that are affected by dwarfism. This includes horses that are part of officially recognized miniature horse breeds.
What Are the Characteristics of a Miniature Horse?
Miniature horses must be 8.5 hands high or below. Anything above this height technically classifies the horse as a pony. Even if the horse is part of a miniature breed, a height of 8.6+ hands eliminates the horse from being classified as an official miniature. Since the general objective of most breeds is to create the smallest possible horse that is still perfect in conformation, horses that meet expectations and have a smaller size typically receive a judging preference.
The height standards for minis apply to mature horses.
On average, a miniature horse is long-lived compared to its larger counterparts. The average miniature horse will live about one-third longer than other horses. One of the oldest horses every documented, living to an age beyond 50, was a miniature horse.
Despite the numerous variations that exist, the first miniature horses had a foundation breed in the Shetland pony. Because of this, you’ll find the physical characteristics of minis, with the exception of size, are generally equal. Distinct breeds from South America and South Africa that did not use the Shetland pony have different physical characteristics.
Most minis tend to be extraordinarily strong for their size. Miniatures have smaller heads, sometimes with a dished face, with eyes that tend to be set wide apart. Their ears are alert, average in proportion to their size, and there is an overall stoutness to their appearance.
The legs of a miniature horse are noticeable shorter in proportion to the rest of their body. Miniature horses that are used for service work will typically wear shoes to protect their hooves from the weight and impact of their movements. They should be set straight, with an appearance of being parallel when viewed from any angle. It is a true, square set, with pasterns that typically slope about 45 degrees.
Hooves for minis should be compact and round, providing for a motion that is fluid with a natural gait. Shoeing is often done to provide miniature horses with an extra level of support for their movements.
Most individuals are gentle horses, intelligent, and naturally good-tempered. Although they cannot be ridden, not even by children, they do have a certain courage to their personality that allows them to go exploring. Many who work with minis describe the horses as being opinionated, impatient, and uncooperative if they don’t feel like they want to complete a task.
They can be spoiled easily and become very headstrong.
Miniature horses can come in any coat color. This includes patterned coats, such as the pinto and Appaloosa spotting. A popular coat option for minis is called “Pintaloosa,” which is a combination of the pinto and Appaloosa coat.
Caring for Miniature Horses
Miniature horses tend to need more care and attention than their larger counterparts, which can make it a challenge to balance the attention required while providing the horse some independence. Owners must have a good selection of grooming equipment available to make sure the horse can stay happy and healthy. A hoof pick, electric clippers, and other grooming basics are a must.
Minis might not be able to support the weight of a person on their back, but they can pull the weight of a person when in harness. Choosing the tack for a mini depends on what the owner’s plan for the horse happens to be. Specialized carts for driving are available for the miniature breeds, including roadster carts. Show halters should be fitted to the exact measurements of the horse since there can be a high level of variety within the physical characteristics of the various breeds.
Minis are especially prone to over-eating because of the physical structure of their digestive tract. To stay healthy, they must have continual food movement throughout their system. Interruptions in this pattern of movement can lead to colic or binge eating. Providing a ration of food to the horse on a regular schedule throughout the day, along with clean water that stays fresh, can easily supplement the time spent in a pasture.
Unlike other horses, minis are affected by the air which flows through their stable or shelter. There must be continual air movement to support the health of the horse. Traditional stalls usually need new partitions that allow the miniature horse to look over it for socialization as well.
The hooves of a miniature horse need to be picked out every day unless the horse is wearing shoes or boots while performing service work. Trimming should occur on a regular schedule as well. Because the legs are short in proportion to the body, any issues with the feet can quickly lead to serious health issues.
Miniature horses are often the perfect pony that children dream about. They are excellent competitive horses, with more than 35 different youth classes available for competition, ranging from costume to halter to hunter/jumper. In the US, the American Miniature Horse Youth Association offers scholarship opportunities to members up until the age of 20 to help the next generation get to know this fun, intelligent, and beautiful horses a little bit better.
Although there are limitations to what these breeds can do, you’ll find that a mini is more than just a pet or a service animal. It can